*The Geography of Four Winds, Glen St. Mary, and Ingleside
Anne’s House of Dreams, Anne of Ingleside, Rainbow Valley and Rilla of Ingleside take place in Glen St. Mary and Four Winds.
The scene of the story is laid mainly at “Four Winds Harbour” – New London harbour was in my mind, although I altered the geography to suit my requirements — Selected Journals of L. M. Montgomery, v. 2, Saturday, July 21, 1917
[left] A Google Map of New London Harbour [right] Fan map of Four Winds Harbour ©lmm-anne.net, click to enlarge. See also Paul Hendricks’ detailed notes on a map of Four Winds The Geography and Chronology of Green Gables
The House of Dreams
The House of Dreams is a “little white house” that the Schoolmaster of Glen St. Mary built for his bride, “sixty years ago.” It is reached by a long lane of lombardy poplars, and has a garden with a brook running through it in the front of the house. Birches encircle the garden, and sea-shells line the flowerbeds. There is a grove of fir trees behind it, and it has a view of the sea.
This is a little white house on the harbor shore, half way between Glen St. Mary and Four Winds Point. It’s a little out of the way, but when we get a ‘phone in that won’t matter so much. The situation is beautiful. It looks to the sunset and has the great blue harbor before it. The sand-dunes aren’t very far away—the sea winds blow over them and the sea spray drenches them…
[The house itself is] not very large, but large enough for us. There’s a splendid living room with a fireplace in it downstairs, and a dining room that looks out on the harbor, and a little room that will do for my office. It is about sixty years old—the oldest house in Four Winds. But it has been kept in pretty good repair, and was all done over about fifteen years ago—shingled, plastered and re-floored. It was well built to begin with. I understand that there was some romantic story connected with its building…
There is a big grove of fir trees behind it, two rows of Lombardy poplars down the lane, and a ring of white birches around a very delightful garden. Our front door opens right into the garden, but there is another entrance—a little gate hung between two firs. The hinges are on one trunk and the catch on the other. Their boughs form an arch overhead…
[And] there IS a brook—and it actually cuts across one corner of the garden. — Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 2
Anne looked and forgot for a time the girl with the splendid, resentful eyes. The first glimpse of her new home was a delight to eye and spirit—it looked so like a big, creamy seashell stranded on the harbor shore. The rows of tall Lombardy poplars down its lane stood out in stately, purple silhouette against the sky. Behind it, sheltering its garden from the too keen breath of sea winds, was a cloudy fir wood, in which the winds might make all kinds of weird and haunting music. Like all woods, it seemed to be holding and enfolding secrets in its recesses,—secrets whose charm is only to be won by entering in and patiently seeking. Outwardly, dark green arms keep them inviolate from curious or indifferent eyes. — Anne’s House of Dreams, ch. 5
Four Winds Harbour, The Shore
The Four Winds Harbour has a narrow entrance between a sand-bar and red cliffs. Four Winds, the village of Glen St. Mary, Harbour Mouth and Harbour Head lie along it. The shore on the Four Winds side of the harbour has a rock shore with cliffs and caves, and sand-dunes. One can row across the channel to the sand-bar, to Harbour Head, and to the fishing village at Harbour Mouth.
Four Winds roughly corresponds to French River/Springbrook, PEI.
[top] Photo of New London Harbour, PEI by Anthony Aucoin
Anne never forgot the loveliness of the view that broke upon them when they had driven over the hill behind the village. Her new home could not yet be seen; but before her lay Four Winds Harbor like a great, shining mirror of rose and silver. Far down, she saw its entrance between the bar of sand dunes on one side and a steep, high, grim, red sandstone cliff on the other. Beyond the bar the sea, calm and austere, dreamed in the afterlight. The little fishing village, nestled in the cove where the sand-dunes met the harbor shore, looked like a great opal in the haze. The sky over them was like a jewelled cup from which the dusk was pouring; the air was crisp with the compelling tang of the sea, and the whole landscape was infused with the subtleties of a sea evening. A few dim sails drifted along the darkening, fir-clad harbor shores. A bell was ringing from the tower of a little white church on the far side; mellowly and dreamily sweet, the chime floated across the water blent with the moan of the sea. The great revolving light on the cliff at the channel flashed warm and golden against the clear northern sky, a trembling, quivering star of good hope. Far out along the horizon was the crinkled gray ribbon of a passing steamer’s smoke. — Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 5
She loved the gentle, misty harbor shore and the silvery, wind-haunted sand shore, but best of all she loved the rock shore, with its cliffs and caves and piles of surf-worn boulders, and its coves where the pebbles glittered under the pools; and it was to this shore she hied herself tonight. — Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 10
Leslie Moore’s House
Leslie Moore’s home is a gray house, among the willows, up the brook. Leslie is Anne’s nearest neighbour.
One evening Anne and Gilbert finally walked down to the Four Winds light. The day had begun sombrely in gray cloud and mist, but it had ended in a pomp of scarlet and gold. Over the western hills beyond the harbor were amber deeps and crystalline shallows, with the fire of sunset below. The north was a mackerel sky of little, fiery golden clouds. The red light flamed on the white sails of a vessel gliding down the channel, bound to a southern port in a land of palms. Beyond her, it smote upon and incarnadined the shining, white, grassless faces of the sand dunes. To the right, it fell on the old house among the willows up the brook, and gave it for a fleeting space casements more splendid than those of an old cathedral. They glowed out of its quiet and grayness like the throbbing, blood-red thoughts of a vivid soul imprisoned in a dull husk of environment. — Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 9
Miss Cornelia’s House
Miss Cornelia’s house is a neat establishment, painted bright green with a lawn, orchard, and barns - and presumably a farm.
The house was a large, substantial affair, painted such a vivid green that the landscape seemed quite faded by contrast. There was an orchard behind it, and a nicely kept lawn before it, but, somehow, there was a certain bareness about it. Perhaps its neatness was responsible for this; the whole establishment, house, barns, orchard, garden, lawn and lane, was so starkly neat. — Anne’s House of Dreams, ch. 5
The Four Winds Light
The Four Winds lighthouse lies on Four Winds Harbour, with the rock shore on one side and the sand shore on the other. It can be seen from the House of Dreams, the garret of Ingleside, and the attic of the Manse.
The Four Winds light was built on a spur of red sand-stone cliff jutting out into the gulf. On one side, across the channel, stretched the silvery sand shore of the bar; on the other, extended a long, curving beach of red cliffs, rising steeply from the pebbled coves. It was a shore that knew the magic and mystery of storm and star. — Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 9
The Four Winds Light is likely based on one of the two lighthouses on New London Harbour. See photos, and find out more here.
Glen St. Mary
Glen St. Mary has a train station, a Presbyterian and Methodist church, Carter Flagg’s store, a school, a wharf, at least a bridge, and a pond called “The Glen Pond.” It is located in a valley at the base Four Winds Harbour, matching the location of Clifton/New London, where L. M. Montgomery was born. The “Harbour Road” leads to it from Harbour Head and Four Winds.
Ingleside is a big house, with a large verandah, and many rooms (see a discussion on the number of bedrooms in Ingleside.) There is large lawn with old trees, and a storybook garden fenced in by a high red brick wall. There is a maple grove behind, and the Glen pond is nearby. Rainbow Valley lies behind the Maple Grove.
A hammock hangs from a big Scotch pine in the lawn, and a cherry tree blooms outside Rilla’s window (Rilla of Ingleside, ch.2)
…The Morgan place will suit us in every essential particular — we really can’t afford to miss such a chance. Think of that big lawn with those magnificent old trees; and of that splendid hardwood grove behind it — twelve acres of it. What a play place for our children! There’s a fine orchard, too, and you’ve always admired that high brick wall around the garden with the door in it — you’ve thought it was so like a story-book garden. And there is almost as fine a view of the harbor and the dunes from the Morgan place as from here.”
“You can’t see the lighthouse star from it.”
“Yes, You can see it from the attic window. There’s another advantage, Anne-girl — you love big garrets.”
“There’s no brook in the garden.”
“Well, no, but there is one running through the maple grove into the Glen pond. And the pond itself isn’t far away. You’ll be able to fancy you have your own Lake of Shining Waters again.” — Anne’s House of Dreams, ch. 40
L. M. Montgomery has not indicated that Ingleside was based a real house, but fans have conjectured what the “original” of Ingleside might look like. The L. M. Montgomery Heritage Museum also calls itself “Ingleside,” and indeed, Gog and Magog preside at this clapboard house with a large verandah. George Leask’s home, a red brick house across the road from the Leaskdale Manse in Ontario, has also been suggested because of its large verandah. The Sutherland home, home of L. M. Montgomery’s cousins, is also a candidate.
 L. M. Montgomery and Leaskdale, website c.2000
 Suggestion on Kindred Spirits mailing list, email c. 2003
George Leask’s home in Leaskdale, Ontario  front view  back/side
photo from yukazine.com
Uncle Robert Sutherland’s Home, photo by L. m. Montgomery c. 1896
A Map of Ingleside and Rainbow Valley, by Paul Hendricks
from Notes on the Geography and Chronology of the Anne books
Rainbow Valley lies behind the Maple Grove. It was called “the Hollow” when the Ingleside children were small, and Walter renamed it “Rainbow Valley” after seeing a magnificent rainbow in it (Anne of Ingleside, ch. 23) It has a brook running through from the village, a natural spring in a marshy hollow, and the Glen pond at its southern end. The “White Lady”, a birch tree, and “The Tree Lovers”, two intertwined spruce and maple trees, grow in the largest hollow of Rainbow Valley. At the uppper corner of Rainbow Valley is the “Old Bailey House”, with a stone dyke and overgrown garden. Across the pond, there is a high hill with a gray house with Rosemary and Ellen West live.
In daytime the Blythe children liked very well to play in the rich, soft greens and glooms of the big maple grove between Ingleside and the Glen St. Mary pond; but for evening revels there was no place like the little valley behind the maple grove. It was a fairy realm of romance to them. Once, looking from the attic windows of Ingleside, through the mist and aftermath of a summer thunderstorm, they had seen the beloved spot arched by a glorious rainbow, one end of which seemed to dip straight down to where a corner of the pond ran up into the lower end of the valley.
“Let us call it Rainbow Valley,” said Walter delightedly, and Rainbow Valley thenceforth it was.
Outside of Rainbow Valley the wind might be rollicking and boisterous. Here it always went gently. Little, winding, fairy paths ran here and there over spruce roots cushioned with moss. Wild cherry trees, that in blossom time would be misty white, were scattered all over the valley, mingling with the dark spruces. A little brook with amber waters ran through it from the Glen village. The houses of the village were comfortably far away; only at the upper end of the valley was a little tumble-down, deserted cottage, referred to as “the old Bailey house.” It had not been occupied for many years, but a grass-grown dyke surrounded it and inside was an ancient garden where the Ingleside children could find violets and daisies and June lilies still blooming in season. For the rest, the garden was overgrown with caraway that swayed and foamed in the moonshine of summer eves like seas of silver.
To the south lay the pond and beyond it the ripened distance lost itself in purple woods, save where, on a high hill, a solitary old gray homestead looked down on glen and harbour. There was a certain wild woodsiness and solitude about Rainbow Valley, in spite of its nearness to the village, which endeared it to the children of Ingleside.
The valley was full of dear, friendly hollows and the largest of these was their favourite stamping ground. Here they were assembled on this particular evening. There was a grove of young spruces in this hollow, with a tiny, grassy glade in its heart, opening on the bank of the brook. By the brook grew a silver birch-tree, a young, incredibly straight thing which Walter had named the “White Lady.” In this glade, too, were the “Tree Lovers,” as Walter called a spruce and maple which grew so closely together that their boughs were inextricably intertwined. Jem had hung an old string of sleigh-bells, given him by the Glen blacksmith, on the Tree Lovers, and every visitant breeze called out sudden fairy tinkles from it. — Chapter 3, Rainbow Valley
THERE was a little unfailing spring, always icy cold and crystal pure, in a certain birch-screened hollow of Rainbow Valley in the lower corner near the marsh. Not a great many people knew of its existence. The manse and Ingleside children knew, of course, as they knew everything else about the magic valley. Occasionally they went there to get a drink, and it figured in many of their plays as a fountain of old romance. Anne knew of it and loved it because it somehow reminded her of the beloved Dryad’s Bubble at Green Gables. Rosemary West knew of it; it was her fountain of romance, too. Eighteen years ago she had sat behind it one spring twilight and heard Martin Crawford stammer out a confession of fervent, boyish love. She had whispered her own secret in return, and they had kissed and promised by the wild wood spring. They had never stood together by it again–Martin had sailed on his fatal voyage soon after; but to Rosemary West it was always a sacred spot, hallowed by that immortal hour of youth and love. Whenever she passed near it she turned aside to hold a secret tryst with an old dream–a dream from which the pain had long gone, leaving only its unforgettable sweetness.
The spring was a hidden thing. You might have passed within ten feet of it and never have suspected its existence. Two generations past a huge old pine had fallen almost across it. Nothing was left of the tree but its crumbling trunk out of which the ferns grew thickly, making a green roof and a lacy screen for the water. A maple-tree grew beside it with a curiously gnarled and twisted trunk, creeping along the ground for a little way before shooting up into the air, and so forming a quaint seat; and September had flung a scarf of pale smoke-blue asters around the hollow. — Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 13
The House on the Hill
The house itself was an old-fashioned gray one, hung with vines, through which the light in the sitting-room winked in friendly fashion. It looked down the Glen, over the harbour, silvered in the moonlight, to the sand-dunes and the moaning ocean. They walked in through a garden that always seemed to smell of roses, even when no roses were in bloom. There was a sisterhood of lilies at the gate and a ribbon of asters on either side of the broad walk, and a lacery of fir trees on the hill’s edge beyond the house. - Anne’s House of Dreams, Chapter 13
A website on L. M. Montgomery in Leaskdale ca. 2000-2006 claimed that Rainbow Valley was based on a valley near Leaskdale. Local Leaskdale residents share this belief. 
The Glen St. Mary manse is a vine-hung, clapboard house built beside the old Methodist graveyard. The Methodist church lies beside the graveyard.
AUNT MARTHA might be, and was, a very poor housekeeper; the Rev. John Knox Meredith might be, and was, a very absent-minded, indulgent man. But it could not be denied that there was something very homelike and lovable about the Glen St. Mary manse in spite of its untidiness. Even the critical housewives of the Glen felt it, and were unconsciously mellowed in judgment because of it. Perhaps its charm was in part due to accidental circumstances–the luxuriant vines clustering over its gray, clap-boarded walls, the friendly acacias and balm-of-gileads that crowded about it with the freedom of old acquaintance, and the beautiful views of harbour and sand-dunes from its front windows…. — Rainbow Valley, ch. 4
If ever a graveyard could be called a cheerful place, the old Methodist graveyard at Glen St. Mary might be so called. The new graveyard, at the other side of the Methodist church, was a neat and proper and doleful spot; but the old one had been left so long to Nature’s kindly and gracious ministries that it had become very pleasant.
It was surrounded on three sides by a dyke of stones and sod, topped by a gray and uncertain paling. Outside the dyke grew a row of tall fir trees with thick, balsamic boughs. The dyke, which had been built by the first settlers of the Glen, was old enough to be beautiful, with mosses and green things growing out of its crevices, violets purpling at its base in the early spring days, and asters and golden-rod making an autumnal glory in its corners. Little ferns clustered companionably between its stones, and here and there a big bracken grew.
On the eastern side there was neither fence nor dyke. The graveyard there straggled off into a young fir plantation, ever pushing nearer to the graves and deepening eastward into a thick wood. The air was always full of the harp-like voices of the sea, and the music of gray old trees, and in the spring mornings the choruses of birds in the elms around the two churches sang of life and not of death. The Meredith children loved the old graveyard.
Blue-eyed ivy, “garden-spruce,” and mint ran riot over the sunken graves. Blueberry bushes grew lavishly in the sandy corner next to the fir wood. The varying fashions of tombstones for three generations were to be found there, from the flat, oblong, red sandstone slabs of old settlers, down through the days of weeping willows and clasped hands, to the latest monstrosities of tall “monuments” and draped urns. One of the latter, the biggest and ugliest in the graveyard, was sacred to the memory of a certain Alec Davis who had been born a Methodist but had taken to himself a Presbyterian bride of the Douglas clan. She had made him turn Presbyterian and kept him toeing the Presbyterian mark all his life. But when he died she did not dare to doom him to a lonely grave in the Presbyterian graveyard over-harbour. His people were all buried in the Methodist cemetery; so Alec Davis went back to his own in death and his widow consoled herself by erecting a monument which cost more than any of the Methodists could afford. The Meredith children hated it, without just knowing why, but they loved the old, flat, bench-like stones with the tall grasses growing rankly about them. They made jolly seats for one thing. They were all sitting on one now. — Rainbow Valley, ch. 4
The Fishing Village
The fishing village, sometimes called “the cove” is at Harbour Head, across the harbour from Four Winds.
She walked down to the village, through the village, past the wharf road, and down the harbour road, a gallant, indomitable little figure…
It was a lowering evening. Out to sea hung a heavy black cloud, like a great dark bat. Fitful lightning played over the harbour and the wooded hills beyond. The cluster of fishermen’s houses at the Harbour Mouth lay flooded in a red light that escaped from under the cloud. Pools of water here and there glowed like great rubies. A ship, silent, white-sailed, was drifting past the dim, misty dunes to the mysterious calling ocean; the gulls were crying strangely.
Nan did not like the smell of the fishing houses or the groups of dirty children who were playing and fighting and yelling on the sands…
She climbed the rickety board steps that led up to Six-toed Jimmy’s door. Like all the Harbour Mouth houses Six-toed Jimmy’s was raised on blocks of wood to be out of the reach of any unusually high tide, and the space underneath it was filled with a medley of broken dishes, empty cans, old lobster traps, and all kinds of rubbish. The door was open and Nan looked into a kitchen the like of which she had never seen in her life. The bare floor was dirty, the ceiling was stained and smoked, the sink was full of dirty dishes. The remains of a meal were on the rickety old wooden table and horrid big black flies were swarming over it. A woman with an untidy mop of grayish hair was sitting on a rocker nursing a fat lump of a baby . . . a baby gray with dirt. –Anne of Ingleside, ch. 31
Lowbridge - Lowbridge is most likely Stanley Bridge, PEI.
Places to Visit
French River Lighthouse, Cape Tryon Lighthouse
Two beautiful lighthouses, and a sand-beach, on New London Harbour
L. M. Montgomery Heritage Museum, also known as “Ingleside”, where Gog and Magog can be found
Birthplace of L. M. Montgomery in the town of New London, likely the “original” of Glen St. Mary
Leaskdale Manse where L. M. Montgomery lived while writing Anne’s House of Dreams, Rainbow Valley and Rilla of Ingleside, and where some claim “originals” of Ingleside and Rainbow Valley can be found